Macroergonomics: Theory, Methods, and Applications (Human by Hal W. Hendrick, Brian Kleiner

By Hal W. Hendrick, Brian Kleiner

This book's basic aim is to supply a complete insurance of ergonomics in total paintings approach research and layout. It presents a precis of the ancient improvement of macroergonomics. It explains how an figuring out of macroergonomics may end up in advancements in things like decreasing work-related misplaced time injuries; and describes the tools and instruments utilized in paintings approach research and layout. all through, the integrating subject matter is that the whole strength of an organization--in phrases of productiveness, security, health and wellbeing, and caliber of labor existence (QWL)--can't be met except the final paintings procedure is designed to comply with the features of its know-how, group of workers subsystem, and the exterior atmosphere upon which it relies for its survival and luck. utilizing a sociotechnical structures process, this article discusses the appliance of macroergonomics to education procedure improvement, possibility administration, know-how move, huge scale organizational switch initiatives, place of work and manufacturing unit automation, group making plans and improvement, and task layout. for every of those functions, genuine case examples may be incorporated. The booklet will entice lecturers of introductory human factors/ergonomics classes as a supplemental textual content or because the basic textual content for a direction totally dedicated to macroergonomics. additionally, it's going to additionally attract practising ergonomists across the world as a "must" upload to their own expert libraries.

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Neumann (1989), for example, has observed that some organizations may not be suited to participatory approaches and that some people may not wish to partici­ pate because of deeply held beliefs. THE THEORY OF PARTICIPATION Economic Perspective Neoclassical economic theory holds that the decision-making rights of an organi­ zation are vested in its owners. The owners delegate some of their rights to ap­ pointed agents (or managers) to act on their behalf. A basic problem for the owner is how to develop an incentive contract for the managers so that they will use their superior access to information to act in the owners' best interests.

A second basic problem noted in the literature is that very few empirical stud­ ies provide quantitative assessments of the effects of participation on productivity (Brown, 1993a). However, there is a large body of empirically derived literature 3O BROWN that examines how participatory arrangements affect more easily defined and measured outcomes such as absenteeism, turnover, and job satisfaction. The re­ sults have been consistently more favorable for such measures (Brown, 1993a). Another problem that arises in research on participation is that many studies use indices of participation encompassing a wide range of participatory ap­ proaches which may mask or confound the effects of any one particular form of participation.

And finally, maximizing the external environment by allotting too much time with external stakeholders at the expense of internal operations also will suboptimize the total system. To achieve the appropriate balance, joint optimization is operationalized through (a) joint design, (b) a human-centered approach to function and task allocation and task design, and (c) attending to the organization's sociotechnical characteristics. The next four chapters on macroergonomic methods offer some pragmatic ways to achieve jointly optimized sociotechnical work systems.

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