Images and Ideologies: Self-definition in the Hellenistic by Anthony W. Bulloch, Erich S. Gruen, A. A. Long, Andrew

By Anthony W. Bulloch, Erich S. Gruen, A. A. Long, Andrew Stewart

This quantity captures the uniqueness, the nationwide and private identification, the cultural alternate, and the self-consciousness that experience lengthy been sensed as specially effective within the Hellenistic international. The fields of background, literature, paintings, philosophy, and faith are every one offered utilizing the structure of 2 essays through a response.Conveying the path and concentration of Hellenistic studying, eighteen major students speak about problems with liberty as opposed to domination, appropriation as opposed to lodging, the expanding range of citizen roles and the costume and gesture acceptable to them, and the accompanying non secular and philosophical ferment. the result's an arresting view of the very good and exceptional variety of the Hellenistic international.

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45. 24. BGU 1213 and 1250 [C. Ord. Ptol. ll. 34, 47]; J. Mélèze-Modrzejewski, "Le statut des hellènes dans l'égypte lagide," in "Bulletin de bibliographie thématique: Histoire," REG 96 (1983): 241-268; on the BGU texts pp. 244ff. 25 In the philanthropa edict of 118 BC, "Greek soldiers," as well as other groups like priests, crown farmers, and monopoly workers, were exempted from losing part of their houses to billeting (P. Tebt. ; C. Ord. Ptol. 53). This language implies, of course, that the administration and the legal system recognized somebody as being either Greek or Egyptian, and that "Greek soldiers" were privileged, but along with other, partly Egyptian, groups important for the government.

76 In this way, beneficence is shown in a totally unfavorable light, and it is quite understandable that Cicero, following Panaetius on the whole, is so critical of generosity shown in gifts of cash and kind. Under the noble surface of liberality lurks bribery, marked by the stigma of moral inferiority. All men might agree that glory was to be attained by benefactions, but the philosopher insisted that true glory must only be attached to moralityvirtus. Now, if the generosity shown by gifts of money is actually cash in exchange for compliance under the guise of virtue, such an infamous transaction should be rebuffed; as Cicero puts it: This is, I admit, the meanest and most sordid motive of all, both for those who are swayed by it and for those who venture to resort to it.

35 The king was also the ultimate source of livelihood for farmers, landowners, noblemen of ancient lineage, administrators, soldiers, and workers. To use the words of the Instruction of Seheteb-ib-re (Middle Kingdom), "He gives food to those who serve him, he nourishes him who treads his path. The king is sustenance, his mouth is plenty, he who will be is his creation. "36 In Ptolemaic times, Epiphanes is "green life for men" (see section II. a with n. c [3]). The fact that in the eyes of the Greeks the kingdom was the affairs of the king points to a secular and largely economic understanding of rulership, but it could be stretched to contain the same obligation as expressed by the Egyptian sentiment.

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