Cosmic Rays in the Earth’s Atmosphere and Underground by Lev Dorman

By Lev Dorman

The current monograph in addition to the subsequent one (Dorman, M2005) is end result of the greater than 50 years operating in cosmic ray (CR) examine. After commencement in December 1950 Moscow Lomonosov kingdom collage (Nuclear and straight forward Particle Physics department, the group of Theoretical Physics), my manager Professor D. I. Blokhintsev deliberate for me, as a winner of a pink degree, to proceed my schooling as an aspirant (a graduate pupil) to organize for Ph. D. in his very mystery item within the framework of what was once in these time referred to as the Atomic challenge. To my remorse the KGB withheld permission, and that i, including different Jewish scholars who had graduated Nuclear Divisions of Moscow and Leningrad Universities and Institutes, have been confronted with a true prospect of being with none paintings. It used to be our success that at the moment there has been being introduced into being the recent Cosmic Ray undertaking (what at the moment was once additionally very mystery, yet now not as mystery because the Atomic Problem), and after your time we have been directed to paintings in this undertaking. It used to be prepared and headed via Prof. S. N. Vernov (President of All-Union portion of Cosmic Rays) and Prof. N. V. Pushkov (Director of IZMIRAN); Prof. E. L. Feinberg headed the theoretical a part of the Project.

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Cosmic Rays in the Earth’s Atmosphere and Underground

The current monograph in addition to the following one (Dorman, M2005) is as a result of greater than 50 years operating in cosmic ray (CR) learn. After commencement in December 1950 Moscow Lomonosov nation college (Nuclear and basic Particle Physics department, the staff of Theoretical Physics), my manager Professor D.

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Research Centrea NASA. COSPAR, National Space .... J =- ri ~ = '" ~ n ~ So ...... a'"= ~ r'l :- i =- r'l 18 Lev Dorman Cosmic Rays in the Earth's Atmosphere and Underground In Fig. 4 are shown information of the planned input from collaborating CR Observatories, as well as meteorological, solar activity, geomagnetic field, and other data. On the basis of these data ICRS will realize continuous monitoring of space weather and determination of the level of hazards and send alarms to different organizations if the level is expected to be dangerous (it will be considered in more detail in our next book Dorman, M2005).

Determination of the sign of the primary CR particles can be achieved using the azimuthally geomagnetic effect: if the sign of primary CR particles is positive the flux of particles from the West will be bigger than from the East. The West-East geomagnetic effect was discovered in 1933 on the basis of measurements by CR telescopes at sea level and at mountain altitudes. According to Johnson (1933) the CR flux from the West was bigger than from the East in Peru (near the equator) by about 7% at sea level and 16% at 4200 m above sea level.

After seven flights on balloons by Victor Hess in 1911-1912, and especially after the famous seventh flight to the height 5350 m on 7th August, 1912 (Hess, 1912), it was shown that the intensity of this source does not decrease with increasing altitude (as was expected if the source is radioactive emanation from the ground, as was assumed by many scientists before), but increases by several times on height about 5 km. sec- 1 ). The radiation discovered was called 'penetrating radiation' or 'ultra-gamma radiation' by V.

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