Programming Language Design Concepts by David A. Watt

By David A. Watt

Explains the suggestions underlying programming languages, and demonstrates how those techniques are synthesized within the significant paradigms: valuable, OO, concurrent, practical, common sense and with contemporary scripting languages. It provides maximum prominence to the OO paradigm. * comprises a number of examples utilizing C, Java and C++ as exmplar languages * extra case-study languages: Python, Haskell, Prolog and Ada * broad end-of-chapter routines with pattern suggestions at the better half website * Deepens examine by means of reading the inducement of programming languages not only their positive aspects

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127}, short {−32 768, . . , +32 767}, int {−2 147 483 648, . . , +2 147 483 647}, and long {−9 223 372 036 854 775 808, . . , +9 223 372 036 854 775 807}. C and 18 Chapter 2 Values and types C++ also provide a variety of integer types, but they are implementationdefined. • Some languages provide not one but several floating-point types. For example, C, C++, and JAVA provide both float and double, of which the latter provides greater range and precision. 1 JAVA and C++ integer types Consider the following JAVA declarations: int countryPop; long worldPop; The variable countryPop could be used to contain the current population of any country (since no country yet has a population exceeding 2 billion).

We say that PASCAL procedures are second-class values, while PASCAL primitive values, composite values, and pointers are first-class values. Even among PASCAL’s first-class values there are finer class distinctions. For example, a function result must be a primitive value or pointer, but not a composite value. This restriction often makes coding awkward. For example, we might want to write a function with a record as its result; instead we are forced to write a proper procedure with a record variable parameter, which cannot be called from within an expression.

But what exactly do these equations mean? Consider the following 34 Chapter 2 Values and types set of values: {nil} ∪ {cons(i, nil) | i ∈ Integer} ∪ {cons(i, cons(j, nil)) | i, j ∈ Integer} ∪ {cons(i, cons(j, cons(k, nil))) | i, j, k ∈ Integer} ∪ ... , the set: {cons(i1 , cons(. . , cons(in , nil) . )) | n ≥ 0; i1 , . . 20). 20). Another solution is the set of all finite and infinite lists of integers. 21). It seems reasonable to discount this alternative solution, however, since we are really interested only in values that can be computed, and no infinite list can be computed in a finite amount of time.

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