On the Simultaneous Jumping of Two Electrons in Bohrs Model by Epstein P.S.

By Epstein P.S.

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The units of Clausius’ entropy were, for a long time, the stumbling blocks that hindered the acceptance of Boltzmann’s entropy. In one, we have a quantity that is defined by the ratio of energy and temperature; in the other, we have a quantity representing the number of states of the system. The two quantities seem to be totally unrelated. Had entropy been defined as a dimensionless quantity, the identification between the two entropies and eventually the interpretation of entropy as a measure of information would have become much easier.

What Callen refers to as Shannon’s definition of disorder is, in fact, Shannon’s definition of information. As we shall see in Chapter 3, the measure of “information” as defined by Shannon also retains some of the flavor of the meaning of information as we use in everyday life. This is not the case for disorder. Of course, one can define disorder as Callen does, precisely by using Shannon’s definition of information. 8 As we have seen above, even mixing, under certain conditions cannot be associated with an increase in disorder nor with the increase in entropy.

Kelvin introduced the absolute scale of temperature in 1854. Maxwell published the molecular distribution of velocities in 1859. This has led to the identification of temperature with the mean kinetic energy of the atoms or molecules in the gas. Once the identification of the temperature as a measure of the average kinetic energy of the atoms had been confirmed and accepted,20 there was no reason to keep the old units of K. One should redefine a new absolute temperature, denote it tentatively as T , to replace kT .

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