# On the Simultaneous Jumping of Two Electrons in Bohrs Model by Epstein P.S.

By Epstein P.S.

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The units of Clausius’ entropy were, for a long time, the stumbling blocks that hindered the acceptance of Boltzmann’s entropy. In one, we have a quantity that is deﬁned by the ratio of energy and temperature; in the other, we have a quantity representing the number of states of the system. The two quantities seem to be totally unrelated. Had entropy been deﬁned as a dimensionless quantity, the identiﬁcation between the two entropies and eventually the interpretation of entropy as a measure of information would have become much easier.

What Callen refers to as Shannon’s deﬁnition of disorder is, in fact, Shannon’s deﬁnition of information. As we shall see in Chapter 3, the measure of “information” as deﬁned by Shannon also retains some of the ﬂavor of the meaning of information as we use in everyday life. This is not the case for disorder. Of course, one can deﬁne disorder as Callen does, precisely by using Shannon’s deﬁnition of information. 8 As we have seen above, even mixing, under certain conditions cannot be associated with an increase in disorder nor with the increase in entropy.

Kelvin introduced the absolute scale of temperature in 1854. Maxwell published the molecular distribution of velocities in 1859. This has led to the identiﬁcation of temperature with the mean kinetic energy of the atoms or molecules in the gas. Once the identiﬁcation of the temperature as a measure of the average kinetic energy of the atoms had been conﬁrmed and accepted,20 there was no reason to keep the old units of K. One should redeﬁne a new absolute temperature, denote it tentatively as T , to replace kT .