By Ruth R. Caston, Robert A. Kaster
Scholarship at the feelings in classical antiquity has targeted nearly solely on unfavorable feelings, yet that isn't as the Greeks and Romans had little to assert approximately optimistic feelings. The chapters during this assortment express that there are representations of confident feelings - thought of the following lower than the headings of 'hope', 'joy', and 'affection' - extending from archaic Greek poetry, during the philosophical faculties of the Epicureans and Stoics, to the Christianity of Augustine, and whereas the various literary representations supply expression to confident emotion but in addition describe its loss, the philosophers supply a extra confident overview of the probabilities of achieving pleasure or contentment during this life. Read more...
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Pho. 398). A number of variations on the container metaphor occur in connection with elpis. 74 The main image of this type, however, is that which has elpis as a container for the goals of the agent or the propositional content of the sentiment itself. Since the contents of elpis may be a goal or simply a certain proposition, this image thus encompasses both elpis as hope and elpis as expectation. Accordingly, in Aeschylus’s Agamemnon (998–1000, already noted above), the Chorus pray that the content of their elpis, their fear that the future will be negative, may prove false: εὔχομαι δ’ ἐξ ἐμᾶς ἐλπίδος ψύθη πεσεῖν ἐς τὸ μὴ τελεσφόρον.
40 Yet the neutral sense can always resurface, as in the Eudemian Ethics (1224b16–21), where the enkratēs is said to feel pleasure and the akratēs pain ἀπ᾽ ἐλπίδος: in the former case, the anticipation may encompass hope, but not in the latter; ἀπ᾽ ἐλπίδος means something like “prospective” here. 42 40. See the pseudo-Platonic definition at Def. 416a21, ἐλπὶς προσδοκία ἀγαθοῦ. Cf. Mag. mor. 1191a14–17. 41. , in the references to the benefits that some seek from certain kinds of philia (Eth. Nic.
1668 (ἐλπίδας σιτουμένους), Soph. Ant. 1246 (ἐλπίσιν δὲ βόσκομαι), and Eur. Bacch. 617 (ἐλπίσιν δ’ ἐβόσκετο), elpis is itself clearly the foodstuff. Elpis is both the foodstuff and the giver of nurture in the Pindaric fragment (214 Maehler) quoted below. In a variant of the “nurture” image at Soph. Ant. 879 it is the person that nourishes elpis. Eur. Bacch. 617–18: ταῦτα καὶ καθύβρισ’ αὐτόν, ὅτι με δεσμεύειν δοκῶν | οὔτ’ ἔθιγεν οὔθ’ ἥψαθ’ ἡμῶν, ἐλπίσιν δ’ ἐβόσκετο. 62 Polyxena’s elpides in Euripides’s Hecuba (351) are similarly destined to be disappointed (349–53): τί γάρ με δεῖ ζῆν; ᾗ πατὴρ μὲν ἦν ἄναξ Φρυγῶν ἁπάντων· τοῦτό μοι πρῶτον βίου.