By Leo M. Chalupa, Robert W. Williams
Contemporary years have visible a burst of experiences at the mouse eye and visible approach, fueled largely through the particularly fresh skill to provide mice with accurately outlined alterations in gene series. Mouse types have contributed to a variety of medical breakthroughs for a few ocular and neurological ailments and feature allowed researchers to deal with primary matters that have been tough to procedure with different experimental types. This entire consultant to present study captures the 1st wave of reviews within the box, with fifty-nine chapters by way of prime students that show the usefulness of mouse versions as a bridge among experimental and scientific study. the outlet chapters introduce the mouse as a species and examine version, discussing such issues because the mouse's evolutionary heritage and the mammalian visible procedure. next sections discover extra really expert matters, contemplating optics, psychophysics, and the visible behaviors of mice; the association of the grownup mouse eye and significant visible method; the advance of the mouse eye (including comparisons to human development); the improvement and plasticity of retinal projections and visuotopic maps; mouse versions for human eye sickness (including glaucoma and cataracts); and the appliance of complex genomic applied sciences (including gene treatment and genetic knockouts) to the mouse visible procedure. Readers of this reference will see that the examine of mouse versions has already confirmed actual translational prowess in imaginative and prescient examine.
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Additional resources for Eye, Retina, and Visual System of the Mouse
The olfactory tubing maze. , 2002). The olfactory tubing maze consists of four chambers joined together by plastic elbow tubes. The testing chambers are composed of two plastic tubes connected in a plus shape and having an odor port, water well, and buzzer at one end and a fan above the center to exhaust the odor stimuli from the maze. After habituation to the apparatus, water-deprived mice are placed in the maze and a CS+ odor stimulus (associated with a drop of water in the water well) and a CS− odor stimulus (associated with a 3-second buzzer) are presented.
2001). Likewise, Garcia et al. (2004) demonstrated that the presence of the retinal degeneration gene in three strains of transgenic Alzheimer’s disease mice (Appsw, Tau, and Tau + APPsw) and their wild-type controls resulted in profound impairment in learning the Morris water maze. The Morris water maze also relies on adequate motor ability, because mice may have to swim for up to 60 s to ﬁnd the platform. Thus, researchers who use the Morris water maze to evaluate learning and memory in the mouse must be sure that their mice are healthy enough to perform the task and have no obvious abnormalities in motor ability that would affect task performance.
2006), because analysis of ABR threshold, amplitude, and latency provides important information regarding the peripheral hearing status and the integrity of the brainstem pathways. The ABR is elicited using clicks and tones of varying frequency and intensity that are channeled through the ear canals of the mouse. Measurement of the ABR requires mice to be deeply anesthetized and subcutaneously implanted with a recording electrode below the pinna, superﬁcial to the auditory nerve. Various clicks and tones ranging from 8 to 32 kHz are presented through earphones on both ears and the loudness of each tone is varied in 5-dB steps.