# Classical and Modern Physics by Kenneth W Ford

By Kenneth W Ford

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30, Ьу contrast, i s expressed in terms of molecular quantities. T h e equality of these expressions provides а vitaJ new link between the macroscopic and submicroscopic worlds and а fundamental definition of tem perature. Si nce the total number of molecules N in а sampJe of gas is equal to the number of moles п muJtiplied Ьу the number of molecules N0 in а single mole, the eq uaJ ity of interest сал Ье written nR T = tnN0mv2 . 3 1 ) Two sma]] changes of notation еnаЫе us to express t h i s resuJt m ore simply.

What is the speed of а hydrogeп molecu]e at the surface of the suп, \Vhere the temperature is 6,000 К ? 65 х 1 0 - 2 6 kg. Substitutiпg this пumber. 38 gives t°rm s � 5 1 0 m/sec. 5, 50 perceпt greater thaп the speed of souпd iп air at the same temperature. А similar calcuJatioп for hydrogeп (molecular '''eight 2) at 6,000 К gi\·es t"rms = 8 , 6 50 m/sec. 9 Definition of specific heat � = 120 5 '\ l 7vrms{N 2 ) . х 14; • S pec i f i c heat Wheп heat eпergy is added to а substaпce. it may Ье divided iп various \vays (Figure 1 3 .

1 1 we shaH consider traпsformatioпs from one form of energy to aпother. Here \Ve are сопсеrпеd with the d efinitions of these kiпds of eпergy and \vith the closely related сопсерt of heat . Heat is often coпsidered yet aпother form of eпergy. То Ье more exact, it is а maп i festatioп of energy transfer Ьу m olecular collisions. If warm alcohol is added to cold water, the alcohol molecules l ose energy and the water mo]ecules gaiп eпergy. Eпergy has Ьееп traпsferred from alcohol to \Vater, апd the t ransfer has Ьееп e ffected Ьу а multitude of m olecular collisioпs.