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Extra info for Cisco LAN Switch Configuration Exam Certification Guide
Forwarding Modes The Catalyst Token Ring switches support one or more of the following forwarding modes: • • • Store-and-forward Cut-through Adaptive cut-through Store-and-Forward Store-and-forward is the traditional mode of operation for a bridge and is one of the modes supported by the Catalyst 3900 and the Catalyst 5000 Token Ring switching cards. book Page 44 Wednesday, August 25, 1999 9:27 PM 44 Chapter 2: Introduction to Switching Concepts whether the frame should be forwarded. At this point, the frame is examined for any errors (frames with errors are not forwarded).
Book Page 47 Wednesday, August 25, 1999 9:27 PM Overview of Token Ring Switching 47 The switch’s CPU software monitors the size of the output queue at each Token Ring port to minimize the effects of congestion at output ports. When port congestion is detected, the switch does the following: • • Raises the transmit priority to a higher level for low-priority frames Discards the oldest frames when the output queue is almost full Frame Filtering Many bridged networks use filtering to reduce broadcast traffic, to block protocols, and to provide simple security.
In some cases, these configurations suffer from excessive ARE traffic as the explorer frames are duplicated on the many possible paths through the network. As a result, network managers have had to use hop counts and filters to manage this problem. Second-generation Token Ring switches support the automatic reduction of explorer traffic via the mechanism called ARE reduction. ARE reduction ensures that the number of ARE frames generated by the switch does not overwhelm the network. 1d SRT standard specifies the following optional ways of reducing the ARE explosion, which both involve examining the entire RIF to determine where the frame has been: • The first method is based on whether the frame has been through the bridge before.