Chemical Warfare Agents: Toxicity at Low Levels by M. Somani Satu, James A. Romano Jr., James A. Romano, Harry

By M. Somani Satu, James A. Romano Jr., James A. Romano, Harry Salem, Brian J. Lukey

Many books disguise the emergency reaction to chemical terrorism. yet what occurs after the preliminary problem? Chlorine, phosgene, and mustard have been utilized in global struggle I. simply years after the conflict have been the long term results of those gases discovered. within the 60s, 70s, and 80s, those and different brokers have been utilized in localized wars. Chemical war brokers: Toxicity at Low degrees explores the lengthy variety results of, safety opposed to, and treatments for chemical substances used in the course of struggle and the continual difficulties in all probability because of poisonous exposures through the Persian Gulf battle. The ebook discusses the toxicities of chemical brokers at low-levels. It specializes in the consequences on army body of workers after publicity to low degrees of sarin - a chemical suspected to were current throughout the Gulf struggle. It additionally covers elements similar to tension, surrounding, and different chemical substances which may improve or lessen the toxicity of chemical war or protecting brokers. It discusses the consequences of rigidity at the blood-brain permeability of pyrodostigmine and polar compounds, and describes how circulating scavenger enzymes or enzymes covalently guaranteed to sponges can detoxify chemical brokers. Acute toxicity is straightforward to monitor and deal with yet low-level toxicity is hard to spot - and will current and persist months and years after the preliminary publicity - making its therapy that rather more tough. Written through specialists identified for his or her contributions to the technology of poisonous chemical compounds, Chemical conflict brokers: Toxicity at Low degrees can provide the newest information regarding the pathophysiology of chemical battle agent harm at low concentrations.

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Hence, soman appeared to be far more persistent than previously assumed. This suggested that toxicokinetic investigations of nerve agents are toxicologically relevant, especially in view of the refractoriness of intoxication with these agents towards treatment. Moreover, the development of analytical techniques, particularly for gas chromatographic analyses of the rather volatile nerve agents, had evolved to a level that detection limits of a few picograms (10Ϫ12 g) of these agents became feasible.

Anal. , 151, 242, 1985. ) The pronounced volatility of nerve agents, especially of sarin and soman, prevents their concentration into a sufficiently small sample volume of ca. 1–5 ␮l for injection into the two-dimensional gas chromatograph. Therefore, an on-line large volume injection system was introduced based on the application of the analytes in an organic solvent, up to a volume of 500 ␮l on Tenax absorption material, from which the solvent is blown off selectively. Next, the analytes are thermally desorbed from the Tenax absorbent into a cold trap for subsequent injection into the twodimensional system by means of flash heating.

59. Clement, J. , Survivors of soman poisoning: recovery of the soman LD50 to control value in the presence of extensive acetylcholinesterase inhibition, Arch. , 63, 150, 1989. 60. , Hypothermia: limited tolerance to repeated soman administration and cross-tolerance to oxotremorine, Pharmacol. Biochem. , 39, 305, 1991. 61. , Low-level nose-only exposure to the nerve agent soman: Atropinized guinea pigs. Toxicol. Appl. , 153, 179, 1998. 62. M. , Cholinergic Mechanisms, Raven Press, New York, 1975.

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