By Jimmy T. Bell, Luci H. Bell (auth.), Wallace W. Schulz, E. Philip Horwitz (eds.)
Chemical pretreatment of nuclear wastes refers back to the series of separations methods used to partition such wastes right into a small quantity of high-level waste for deep geologic disposal and a bigger quantity of low-level waste for disposal in a near-surface facility. Pretreatment of nuclear wastes now kept at numerous U. S. division of power websites levels from uncomplicated solid-liquid separations to extra complicated chemical steps, resembling dissolution of sludges and elimination of chosen radionuclides, e. g. , 90Sr, 99Tc, 137CS, and TRU (transuranium) parts. the motive force for improvement of chemical pretreatment procedures for nuclear wastes is the commercial good thing about waste minimization as mirrored in reduce charges for near-surface disposal in comparison to the excessive fee of putting off wastes in a deep geologic repository. This latter topic is expertly and authoritatively mentioned within the introductory paper by way of J. and L. Bell. Seven papers during this quantity describe numerous separations methods built or being constructed to pretreat the big quantity of nuclear wastes kept on the US DOE Hanford and Savannah River websites. those papers comprise descriptions of the kind and volume of significant nuclear wastes saved on the Hanford and Savannah River websites in addition to shortly anticipated concepts for his or her therapy and ultimate disposal. A paper by way of Strachan et al. discusses chemical and radiolytic mechanisms for the formation and unlock of probably explosive hydrogen fuel in Tank 241-SY-101 on the Hanford site.
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Single-Shell Tank Wastes Wastes in the SSTs consist mainly of two types of solids: sludge and salt cake. A small amount (2,300 m3) of interstitial liquid is also present. ) oxides and hydroxides. These precipitated when the acidic liquid wastes from the bismuth phosphate (BiP04), reductionoxidation (REDOX), and PUREX processes were made alkaline before routing to the SSTs. ) that crystallized when the original highly alkaline liquid wastes were evaporated. Of the SST radio nuclide inventory, over 99 percent of the uranium, plutonium, and other TRU elements, 9OSr, and some of the 99Tc are in the sludge, while 27 the salt cake contains over 90 percent of the 137Cs and the rest of the 99Tc.
B The TRUEX process is being developed for this purposel,2,3. This process is a solvent extraction process in which the TRUs are extracted from nitric acid solution using octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobuty1carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO). In this paper, we discuss the TRUEX processing of another unique Hanford waste-neutralized cladding removal waste (NCRW) sludge. 1 M NaOH, and the slurry was heated at 100° C for 1 h. After cooling, the mixture was centrifuged, and the supernatant liquid was decanted.
Smith, 1992, Cobalt(III) Dicarbollide, A Potential 137Cs and 90Sr Waste Extraction Reagent, U. S. DOE Report LA-11695, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico. RHO, 1980a, Technical Status Report on Environmental Aspects of Long-Term Management of High-Level Defense Waste at the Hanford Site, RHO-LD-139, Rockwell Hanford Operations, Richland, Washington. RHO-1980b, Environmental Aspects of Long-Term Management Alternatives for HighLevel Defense Waste at the Hanford Site, RHO-LD-140, Rockwell Hanford Operations, Richland, Washington.