By Ron Field
В июле 1866 году афроамериканские военнослужащие были организованы в два кавалерийских и четыре пехотных полка под командованием белых офицеров.
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Existing industries were thus deprived of labour, and the forests destroyed. The population should rather be kept in the settled areas by every legislative means possible, and then increased by stepping up immigration. Robinson defended his policy in a vigorous despatch. The extension of minor industries, he said, had begun at least forty years before, and the opening of the Crown lands dated to A. H . Gordon's time, while the great expansion in cocoa came in the 1870s. If it had not been for these developments, which he had in no sense initiated, the colony could hardly have weathered the 1884-5 sugar depression.
L. M. 8 The Farfans, of Spanish descent, had been The white elite 37 settled in St Joseph since the seventeenth century and had intermarried with many leading French Creole families. 9 These French Creole families cherished a tradition of loyalty to the House of Bourbon; they were royalist in politics, bitterly hostile to the revolutionary and republican movements. The Chevalier de Verteuil, who came to the island in 1797 with the British forces to found its most influential French Creole family, had campaigned actively against the Revolution.
Throughout the nineteenth century, Unofficials were nominated to represent the leading economic sectors of the island, sugar, cocoa, and commerce. The theory was that only men with a large economic stake in the island would truly have its interests at heart, and it fitted in well with the idea that only ' men of substance' could play a positive role in political life. The use of such criteria gave the dominant position to the planting interest, for there were few independent merchants or professionals who could have fulfilled the requirement of considerable wealth.