By Mary R. Lefkowitz
Was once Western civilization based via historical Egyptians and Phoenicians?Can the traditional Egyptians usefully be referred to as black?Did the traditional Greeks borrow faith, technological know-how, and philosophy from the Egyptians and Phoenicians?Have students overlooked the Afroasiatic roots of Western civilization due to racism and anti-Semitism?In this number of twenty essays, top students in a vast variety of disciplines confront the claims made through Martin Bernal in Black Athena: The Afroasiatic Roots of Classical Civilization. In that paintings, Bernal proposed an intensive reinterpretation of the roots of classical civilization, contending that historic Greek tradition derived from Egypt and Phoenicia and that ecu students were biased opposed to the proposal of Egyptian and Phoenician effect on Western civilization. The individuals to this quantity argue that Bernal's claims are exaggerated and in lots of circumstances unjustified.Topics coated contain race and actual anthropology; the query of an Egyptian invasion of Greece; the origins of Greek language, philosophy, and technology; and racism and anti-Semitism in classical scholarship. within the end to the amount, the editors suggest a completely new scholarly framework for realizing the connection among the cultures of the traditional close to East and Greece and the origins of Western civilization.
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Nonetheless, maintaining this “good vibe” was a chief concern for performers, poets, producers, and officials, for it could guarantee a successful festival and serve—expressly or perhaps incidentally—as a means to captivate the spectators’ interests. Who Judges? , the judges judge), determining who precisely is included in this group is more complex. There was an official panel of ten judges at the festivals. The names of potential judges were put forward by the ten tribes, vetted by the Council, placed with much care (so as to avoid tampering) in sealed jars by producers (khorêgoi ), and then stored on the Acropolis under the watch of the Treasurers.
This troublesome spectator is presented as likely to ask pointed questions about the performance. The Slave in Aristophanes’ Peace notes that the spectators who think themselves wise might be asking questions about what is going on (43–45); this prompts the Slave to launch into a description of the plot to manage such disruptive questions. In a play by the fourth-century comic poet Heniochus, a character notes that someone in the audience might interrupt and ask questions (fr. 60 In the face of such potential interruptions, these comic characters attempt to diffuse disturbances to the performance by redirecting and incorporating spectators’ energies.
The vast sums of money involved provide a clear indication of the keen interest in dramatic performance. 17 Athens was notorious for its festival spending. Public costs for the City Dionysia were in the range of fifteen talents (90,000 drachmas), with money being spent on such items as feasts, processions, poets, pipers, actors’ prizes, distributions (theorika) to citizens to attend the festival, and pay for stagehands and other theater workers. Private costs were likewise in the range of fifteen talents, with individuals providing funds for such things as choruses, tribal banquets, and processional items.