By Albert Szent-Györgyi
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As shown by Hopkins, the glutathione of the cell juice is in balance with the fixed SS-SH svstem, and so the shift of this system toward SH will be accompanied, also, by an increase of the concentration of SH-glutathione. The SH groups are also involved in function. The SH groups participating in various functions have a varied biopotential. Those, involved in cell proliferation and protein synthesis, seem to have an especially high biopo tential, being easily inactivated by acceptors, even by acceptors of low biopotential.
G. Hopkins estimated the quantity of fixed SH in washed muscle. He treated the muscle with a solution of S—S glutathione which became reduced by the fixed SH to SH-glutathione. He found that if he allowed this SH-glutathione to be reoxidized by Oo, ten times more Oi; was used up than corresponded to the fixed SH present in the muscle. He was puzzled but found no solution. The observation of Hopkins indicates that there is, in muscle, an unknown reducing agent in quantities ten times greater than glutathione; this reducing agent is strongly bound to protein.
2 6 , disjointed. Cohesion means the mutual neutralization of the forces surrounding the single particles. The conventional forces responsible for van der Waals attraction are attraction of charges or dipoles supported by the London dispersion forces. A force which has been overlooked till now is that of charge transfer. It will not pull particles together, but once they are brought together and orbital overlap has been established, it may help to hold the particles together 59 IV. PHYSIOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY and even bring them into positions in which the overlap is maximal (Mulliken).