By Lee H. Horsley, Robert F. Gould
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L. Duffield. Tyler, M. , and Martin, A. , 1977, A New Species of Large, Green Tree Frog From Northern Western Australia, Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust. 101(5):133-138. Tyler M. , Smith, L. , and Johnstone, R. , 1994, Frogs of Western Australia, Lamb Print. Wabnitz, P. , Bowie, J. , Tyler, iVI. , Wallace, J. C, and Smith, B. , 1999, Animal behaviour: Aquatic sex pheromone from a male tree frog, Nature 401:444-445. Wabnitz, P. , Bowie, J. , Tyler, M. , Wallace, J. C, and Smith, B. , 2000, Differences in the skin peptides of the male and female Australian tree frog Litoria splendida.
Pheromones delivered during initial contact between mates, as well as during courtship interactions, may play a significant role in female mate choice. Chemical signals can be conveyed to the female directly from the surface of the male's body as the pair comes into physical contact (Arnold, 1976). Furthermore, pheromones are delivered directly to the female's nares when the male 'slaps' his mental gland onto her snout during courtship (Organ, 1958; Arnold, 1976). , 1999). Courtship pheromone delivery does not guarantee insemination, however, and the female may leave the courting male following pheromone delivery (Reagan, 1992).
Fifteen salamanders of each sex and of each species were tested in a set of eight odor preference trials (Figure 1; 120 tests per species). The order in which an animal performed a particular trial was assigned randomly. 5 X 9 cm) as the experimental chamber. 5 cm between the CHEMICAL SIGNALING IN TERRESTRIAL SALAMANDERS 35 two substrates to prevent diffusion of chemical cues between sides. The side of the box in which the odors were placed was randomized. At 1800 hr, the experimental animal was introduced to the center of the experimental box and the animal's behavior was observed under dim red illumination.