Auditory And Vestibular Organs of Marine Mammals (Russian by G. N. Sointseva

By G. N. Sointseva

The fundamental instructions of the structural evolution of the outer, heart and internal ears in representatives of a large ecological variety of mammals (terrestrial, subterranean, aerial, semi-aquatic and aquatic kinds, together with marine mammals) were traced during this monograph for the 1st time. The large spectrum of the species studied and the appliance of recent anatomical, optical and bio-mechanical tools allowed the writer to explain formerly unknown structural positive aspects of the peripheral a part of the auditory process in animals with a diversified specialization of listening to. The impact of ecological and evolutionary elements at the structural association of the auditory organ used to be analyzed. The ecological and morphological procedure was once valuable in revealing the truth that the peculiarities within the auditory organ constitution in several mammalian teams have been stipulated via the animals' version to yes acoustic good points of habitat. Morphological and sensible variations of the peripheral a part of the auditory procedure directed to the optimization of auditory sensitivity in several habitats proved to be vital in evolution. specific consciousness was once paid to the fewer greatly studied orders of mammals (pinnipeds, cetaceans), being of curiosity either from the viewpoint in their echolocation skills (in dolphins) and the impact of water habitat at the morphological edition improvement within the constitution of the peripheral a part of the auditory analyzer in semi-aquatic and aquatic species. The ebook is illustrated with plenty of unique micro-photos, photos, drawings and is geared toward morphologists, zoologists, ecologists and experts, operating within the box of bionics, in addition to scholars and tutors of organic and scientific departments in institutes and universities. Galina N. Solntseva is a Professor on the Laboratory for Bioacoustics within the A. N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution Russian Academy of Sciences. She is a widely known expert within the box of the evolutionary morphology of listening to. G.N. Solntseva has studied the peripheral a part of the auditory procedure in representatives of other ecological teams of mammals for a few years. She has taken half in several marine expeditions within the Black, Caspian, White Seas and within the Sea of Okhotsk so that it will gather morphological fabric and this has allowed her to assemble a special (in phrases of quantity and species variety) selection of morphological fabric on marine mammals. G.N. Solntseva is the writer of greater than 100 medical works during this box, together with the monograph "The Auditory procedure of Mammals", issued in 1979 by means of the publishing apartment "Nauka".

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Chiroptera (Chiroptera) The structure of the middle ear in the order Chiroptera has been described using several species [Hagenbach, 1835; Bondy, 1907; Frey, 1911; Gray, 1913; Klaauw, 1922; Wassif, 1950; Henson, 1961, 1965; Airapetiantz, Konstantinov, 1965, 1974]. Compared to the size of the cochlea, the tympanum of bats is small. The inner surface of tympanum has smooth walls. The auditory ossicles are shortened in size, are thin and have deep grooves. A thin osseous plate is located in the joint area between the malleus and the incus.

The muscular arm is located in the middle part of the handle of the malleus. The CHAPTER 2. S TRUCTURE OF THE MIDDLE EAR IN MAMMALS 51 incus is large compared to the malleus. The stapes is shaped like a top and is hollow. The tympanic membrane is round. The tympanic bone encloses the cavity of the middle ear ventrally and forms an osseous part of the auditory meatus. The tympanum is narrow. In chimpanzees, the structure of the middle ear is similar to that of humans. The malleus preserves the still-crooked long arm, but already reveals classical partition into the head, neck and handle of the malleus.

The malleus preserves the still-crooked long arm, but already reveals classical partition into the head, neck and handle of the malleus. The muscular arm is completely reduced. The incus is heavy outwardly, but the mass of its body is greater than the mass of the head of the malleus. The long arm of the incus at the distal part is wider than at the proximal part and is peculiarly crooked. The lenticular arm is pronounced but is very short. The stapes has two hollow crura, and its base fits easily into the oval window of the inner ear.

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