Animal Camouflage: Mechanisms and Function by Martin Stevens, Sami Merilaita

By Martin Stevens, Sami Merilaita

Within the final decade, examine at the formerly dormant box of camouflage has complex swiftly, with various reports difficult conventional strategies, investigating formerly untested theories and incorporating a better appreciation of the visible and cognitive structures of the observer. utilizing reviews of either genuine animals and synthetic structures, this ebook synthesises the present country of play in camouflage study and realizing. It introduces the differing kinds of camouflage and the way they paintings, together with heritage matching, disruptive colour and obliterative shading. It additionally demonstrates the methodologies used to review them and discusses how camouflage pertains to different matters, fairly with reference to what it could let us know approximately visible notion. the aggregate of fundamental learn and experiences indicates scholars and researchers the place the sphere at present stands and the place intriguing and significant difficulties stay to be solved, illustrating how the learn of camouflage is probably going to growth sooner or later.

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Extra resources for Animal Camouflage: Mechanisms and Function

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Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Series B, 364, 429–437. Haralick, R. , Shanmugam, K. & Dinstein, I. 1973. Textural features for image classification. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, 6, 610–621. Hart, N. S. 2001. Visual ecology of avian photoreceptors. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, 20, 675–703. , Victorsson, J. & Odeen, A. 2005. Differences in color vision make passerines less conspicuous in the eyes of their predators. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 102, 6391–6394.

The noteworthy difference when compared to Thayer’s idea is that, according to Endler (1978) the optimal coloration should resemble an actual sample of the relevant background rather than an averaged representation of it. Also, the randomness of the sample implies that according to Endler (1978) the optimal appearance need not resemble the most frequent sample or be directly related to the frequencies of different samples. Using an analytical model, Merilaita et al. (1999) studied the optimisation of background-matching prey coloration in a habitat consisting of two visually different microhabitats.

Although many of Thayer’s ideas were relatively incomplete rather than clear hypotheses, his suggestion for the optimisation of background matching was actually very precise. Whilst pondering on animal camouflage and how this could be applied for military purposes, Thayer experimented with stencil cut-outs shaped in the form of various animals. His idea was that sampling the background by looking at the animal’s habitat through a stencil would indicate how the costume of that animal had been selected.

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