By Jeroen van Craenenbroeck
Within the Nineteen Eighties generative grammar famous that useful fabric is ready to undertaking syntactic constitution in conformity with the X-bar-format. This perception quickly ended in a substantial elevate within the stock of practical projections. the fundamental thought at the back of this line of theorizing, which works through the identify of cartography, is that sentence constitution should be represented as a template of linearly ordered positions, every one with their very own syntactic and semantic import. lately, despite the fact that, a couple of difficulties were raised for this strategy. for instance, definite combos of syntactic components can't be linearly ordered. In mild of such difficulties a couple of replacement money owed were explored. a few of them suggest a brand new (often interface-related) set off for stream, whereas others search substitute technique of accounting for numerous note order styles. those choices to cartography don't shape a homogeneous staff, nor has there so far been a discussion board the place those rules might be in comparison and faced with each other. This quantity fills that hole. It bargains a various and in-depth view at the place taken via a considerable variety of researchers within the box this day on what's possibly the most hotly debated and debatable matters in present-day generative grammar.
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Additional info for Alternatives to Cartography
Moscow: Russky Yazyk. Kuno, Susumu 1973 The Structure of the Japanese Language. Cambridge: MIT Press. Kuroda, Shigeyuki 1988 Whether we agree or not: A comparative syntax of English and Japanese. In: William J. ), Papers from the Second International Workshop on Japanese Syntax, 103–143. Stanford: CSLI. [Also in: Linguisticae Investigationes 12: 1–47. And reprinted in: Kuroda, Shigeyuki 1992.
Tell me about John. Well, John is a PhD student enrolled at the University of Lund. As an aside, we may note that there is something puzzling about this test. We have argued in the introduction that constituents that refer back to the current topic of discourse do not need to be linguistic topics themselves. Given that John seems to be introduced as the topic of discourse in (24a), why can’t John in (24b) simply be a discourse-anaphoric expression? The solution to this puzzle lies in the fact that any given discourse comes in chunks (units of discourse), and for each of these a topic must be established.
Some speakers of Dutch marginally allow A-scrambling of a direct object across an indirect object, a possibility more generally available in German. The judgments reported here are from speakers who reject such scrambling. The proposal outlined here constitutes a correction on Neeleman and Van de Koot (2008), where it is assumed that A’-scrambling marks a comment or a background rather than a domain of contrast. The judgments given here and below are based on a pronunciation of the examples in which the constituent marked as focus carries a plain high tone, and the constituent marked as topic carries a tune consisting of a high tone, a low tone and a high boundary tone (this intonation of Dutch topics is in line with the observations reported in Van Hoof 2003).