Action et Réaction. Vie et Aventures d'un couple by Jean Starobinski

By Jean Starobinski

Pourquoi dans los angeles vie quotidienne, affirme-t-on qu’une state of affairs intolérable appelle une réaction ? remark les biologistes en sont-ils venus à penser les rapports du vivant et du milieu en termes d’interaction ? Pour quelle raison l. a. psychiatrie a-t-elle adopté, il y a un siècle, los angeles catégorie des affections réactionnelles ? Pourquoi le inspiration d’abréaction fut-il inventé puis abandonné par l. a. première psychanalyse ? Que veut-on faire entendre, quand on déclare qu’une politique est réactionnaire ? Dire que le totalitarisme nazi fut une réaction au totalitarisme communiste, n’est-ce pas l’excuser ? Le mot « réaction » et ses dérivés offrent leurs companies pour l’explication causale comme pour los angeles compréhension par sympathie. Ils nous viennent à l’esprit quand nous cherchons des réponses à nos problèmes. Or ces mots, précisément, ne font-ils pas problème ?C’est l’occasion pour, Jean Starobinski, d’examiner les filières intellectuelles à travers lesquelles le mot « réaction » et ses dérivés nous sont parvenus. Ce livre remonte au rôle que leur attribua los angeles scolastique, mais aboutit aux interrogations qui entourent aujourd’hui l. a. concept de progrès, sans laquelle los angeles réaction politique ne peut être pensée. Il convoque aussi bien les philosophes (Aristote, Leibniz, Kant, Nietzsche, Jaspers), que les savants (Newton, Bichat, Claude, Bernard, Bernheim, Freud) et les écrivains (Diderot, Benjamin consistent, Balzac, Poe, Valéry).

L’ouvrage est une traversée originale de l. a. tradition occidentale : il éclaire successivement les fondements de l. a. technological know-how et l. a. protestation des poètes, parcourant ainsi les chemins qui conduisent à nos perplexités présentes.

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In a 1944 essay, “A New Refutation of Time” [“Nueva refutación del tiempo”], Borges quotes Berkeley profusely, and transcribes the relevant paragraph from the Principles of Human Knowledge. “For as to what is said of the absolute existence of unthinking things without any relation to their being perceived, that seems perfectly unintelligible. Their esse is percipi, nor is it possible they should have any existence, out of the minds or thinking things which perceive them” (Berkeley 25; Borges SNF 319; OC 759).

God and country To be something they didn’t know, to be Argentines; To be what they would be by virtue Of the oath taken in that old house. We are the future of those men, The justification of those dead. Our duty is the glorious burden Bequeathed to our shadow by those shadows; It is ours to save. No one is the homeland—it is all of us. May that clear, mysterious fire burn Without ceasing, in my breast and yours. (SP 237) [Nadie es la patria. Ni siquiera el jinete Que, alto en el alba de una plaza desierta, Rige un corcel de bronce por el tiempo, Ni los otros que miran desde el mármol, Ni los que prodigaron su bélica ceniza Por los campos de América O dejaron un verso o una hazaña O la memoria de una vida cabal En el justo ejercicio de los días.

Such I take this important one to be, to wit, that all the choir of heaven and furniture of the earth, in a word all those bodies which compose the mighty frame of the world, have not any subsistence without a mind, that their being is to be perceived or known; that consequently so long as they are not actually perceived by me, or do not exist in my mind or that of any other created spirit, they must either have no existence at all, or else subsist in the mind of some eternal spirit. ” It should be added that the parenthetical segment in the poem is an almost literal transcription of a passage from the title essay of his 1936 book History of Eternity: “The universe requires eternity.

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