A Field Guide to Animal Tracks by Olaus Johan Murie

By Olaus Johan Murie

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Behavioral ecology should not have much of a problem with this because women and the particular views of women, especially on male-biased interpretations, became deeply influential in the development of this field. For example, the orthodox concept that male mammals are promiscuous (because their reproduction is limited by access to fertile females) and that females are monogamous (because they do not gain anything from copulations with multiple partners) has been replaced with a whole 21 22 V. Sommer repertoire of reproductive strategies that have little to do with the idea that females are “passive” (Hrdy 1981).

29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 S & L 1987, case 8 S & L 1987, case 1 Ross 1993 Sommer 1994 case 1 Sommer 1994 case 2 Sommer 1994 case 4 Sommer 1994 case 15 Sommer 1994 case 18 Sommer 1994 case 19 Sommer 1994 case 42 Sommer 1994 case 49 Sommer 1994 case 51 Sommer 1994 case 79 Sommer 1994 case 89 Sommer 1994 case 101 Borries 1997 Wright 1995 Wright 1995 Erhart & Overdorff 1998 Hood 1994 S & L 1987, case 22 S & L 1987, case 23 S & L 1987, case 24 S & L 1987, case 20 S & L 1987, case 21 Hamai et al.

Where it is found that the costs for the males are low, there will be less selection on strict assessment of these parameters (especially P and infant age) by the males, although large errors in estimating p are costly. A cost not considered so far is the possibility that the infant was sired by a male relative. In this case, the net benefit becomes [(tn Ϫ ti)/tn]PϾpϩ(rPr), where r is the relatedness between perpetrator and likely sire, and Pr the probability that this relative actually sired the infant.

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