By Stanley D Brunn
@text: during this booklet, a global crew of political geographers and political scientists learn the impression of eleven September 2001 on international guidelines and diplomacy. The authors draw from numerous diversified views to debate Amer
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The creation of the category of crimes against humanity entailed recognition of the breakdown of traditional distinctions between soldiers and civilians and between war and crime. Thus, the murder of six million Jews, like more recent ‘ethnic cleansing’ in Bosnia and Kosovo and genocide in Rwanda, were regarded by the global community as the acts of common criminals having no legitimate military objective. Since the Second World War, United Nations conventions— especially the Genocide Convention and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights—and international and regional human rights tribunals have repeatedly reinforced the Nuremberg precedent.
Just as most individuals cannot by their own effort meet their needs for food, shelter, health, and old age as their ancestors did, individual states can neither shield citizens from global threats, nor cope with globalised challenges. Overall, as interdependent individuals caught up in a variety of authorities, we are probably less secure in our collective existence than in earlier epochs when our survival depended on our own exertion and imagination. As individuals diversify and specialise their occupation and role in society, the world mimics them, and increasingly specialised collective actors, both constructive and destructive, have emerged to deal with problems.
155–67. 6. Krasner, Sovereignty: Organized Hypocrisy (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press 1999). 7. Rosenau, ‘Global Changes and Theoretical Challenges: Toward a Postinternational Politics for the 1990s’, in Ernst-Otto Czempiel and Rosenau (eds), Global Changes and Theoretical Challenges: Approaches to World Politics for the 1990s (Lexington, MA: Lexington Books 1989) p. 3. 8. 849–50. 9. 7. 10. Rosenau, ‘NGOs and Fragmented Authority in Globalizing Space’, paper presented at the Joint ISA-ECPR Conference in Vienna, 16–19 September 1998.